Kidney Diseases

Kidney Diseases

Some kidney problems may be temporary, or symptoms of other conditions like chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD, also known as kidney failure). Many people have kidney disease, but most of them do not know it because it has no symptoms in the early stages. In this section, learn more about kidney disease and kidney problems, kidney failure and other kidney conditions.

"You cannot survive without your kidneys. They filter waste and extra water (fluid) out of your blood, but they also do many other important jobs that keep your body working the way it should."


There are many reasons for kidney failure but the prominent ones are the following:

Diabetes Mellitus, High blood pressure, Some medicines such as pain killers, Obstruction of urine flow, Formulation of stones in kidneys and urinary systems, Dehydration that is less amount of blood and water in the body due to vomiting, cholera and diarrhoea etc, and shock(low BP)

types of kidney diseases

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means your kidneys are damaged and can’t filter blood the way they should. The disease is called “chronic” because the damage to your kidneys happens slowly over a long period of time. This damage can cause wastes to build up in your body. CKD can also cause other health problems.


This can be treated and cured as the kidney is in diseased state for a short time, which results in reversible damage. Its caused by dehydration due to cholera, excessive diarrhoea and vomiting, low blood pressure, side effects of medicine and infection etc.

Nephrotic Syndrome

Proteins are lost from the kidney in urine, which leads to swelling of the body and eventually results in kidney failure.

Kidney stones

Kidney stones are another common kidney problem. They occur when minerals and other substances in the blood crystallize in the kidneys, forming solid masses (stones). Kidney stones usually come out of the body during urination. Passing kidney stones can be extremely painful, but they rarely cause significant problems.

Polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that causes numerous cysts (small sacs of fluid) to grow in the kidneys. These cysts can interfere with kidney function and cause kidney failure. (It’s important to note that individual kidney cysts are fairly common and almost always harmless. Polycystic kidney disease is a separate, more serious condition.)

Pediatric Kidney Disease

Kidney disease in children, also called pediatric kidney disease, often has causes that are different from those that usually account for kidney disease in adults.


Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli. Glomeruli are extremely small structures inside the kidneys that filter the blood. Glomerulonephritis can be caused by infections, drugs, or congenital abnormalities (disorders that occur during or shortly after birth). It often gets better on its own.

Urinary tract infections

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are bacterial infections of any part of the urinary system. Infections in the bladder and urethra are the most common. They are easily treatable and rarely lead to more health problems. However, if left untreated, these infections can spread to the kidneys and cause kidney failure.

What are the symptoms of kidney disease?

Kidney disease is a condition that can easily go unnoticed until the symptoms become severe. The following symptoms are early warning signs that you might be developing kidney disease:

  • fatigue
  • difficulty concentrating
  • trouble sleeping
  • poor appetite
  • muscle cramping
  • swollen feet/ankles
  • puffiness around the eyes in the morning
  • dry, scaly skin
  • frequent urination, especially late at night

Severe symptoms that could mean your kidney disease is progressing into kidney failure include:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • changes in urine output
  • fluid retention
  • anemia (a decrease in red blood cells)
  • decreased sex drive
  • sudden rise in potassium levels (hyperkalemia)
  • inflammation of the pericardium (fluid-filled sac that covers the heart)